Human population and different views

The purpose of this post is to understand that the population is growing day by day, and the available resources are limited.

Human population is approximately 6.93 billion people, where Earth’s carrying capacity said to be about 10 – 15 billion people.

Major factors increase human population:

  1. Increase in food production and distribution
  2. Improvements in public health (water and sanitation)
  3. Medical technology

People before many years could have died by a simple flu. Next they were able to fight and cure deadly germs that once killed them. Moreover, because of the technology , people could produce more and different kinds of food. Gradually over the years, these discoveries and inventions spread throughout the world, lowering death rates and improving the quality of life. During the past ten years, the world’s food production has increased by 24 percent, outpacing the rate of population growth.

The Cassandra and Cornucopian debate is an argument between two extreme positions on the prospects for human society and the environment in the face of population and economic growth. Cassandras believe that unchecked growth in numbers of people and material consumption rates will inevitably lead to environmental and social catastrophe. This group is associated with ecologists and environmentalists.

Cornucopians believe that human ingenuity and free markets will allow the human species to adapt to any conceivable pressures caused by growth of the human enterprise. They are associated with free-market economists. The debate originated at least as far back as Malthus in the eighteenth century, flared up with special intensity in the late 1960s and 1970s over the issue of exhaustible natural resources, and continues in more subdued form today as reflected in the issue of global environmental change.

Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born 29 May 1932) is an American biologist and educator who is the Bing Professor of Population Studies in the department of Biological Sciences at Stanford University and president of Stanford’s Center for Conservation Biology. By training he is an entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies), but he is known better as an ecologist and a demographer, specifically for his warnings about unrestricted population growth and limited resources. Ehrlich became well-known after publication of his controversial 1968 book The Population Bomb.”

Ehrlich is famous for positing three major factors that determine sustainability: population, affluence and technology, and this has been summarized by the equation I PAT (I = P × A × T, such that Human Impact (I) on environment equals the product of Population, Affluence, & Technology).

Hans Rosling (born 27 July 1948 in Uppsala, Sweden) is a Swedish medical doctor, academic, statistician and public speaker. He is Professor of International Health at Karolinska Institute and co-founder and chairman of the Gapminder Foundation, which developed the Trendalyzer software system. His current work focuses on dispelling common myths about the so-called developing world, which is no longer away from the West. In fact, most of the Third World countries are on the same trajectory toward health and prosperity, and many countries are moving twice as fast as the west did.

Rosling’s presentations are grounded in solid statistics, and illustrated by the visualization software he developed. The animations transform development statistics into moving bubbles and flowing curves that make global trends clear, intuitive and even playful. His stunning way of presenting the presentations makes him unique and special. Finally, a presentation that tracks global health and poverty trends should be, in a word: boring. But in Rosling’s hands, data  sings and trends come to life.

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Ecological Footprints

Here we will see all different aspects and what affects an ecological footprint.

An ecological footprint analysis is a way to calculate based on the natural resources available. Simply put, ecological footprint is all about how much natural resources people, countries, economies, or the world are using. In another word, the ecological footprint is the humans demand on the earth and the capacity of the earth to regenerate the recourses that we use. 

A few factors that affect the ecological footpriny is the size of the population in the specific area or country that you want to calculate. Another is the imports and exports of that area so we can tell if its a growing country, a developing country or a third world country.

Calculating Ecological Footprints

You will work by yourself or with a partner (optional).

In case you work with a partner, both need to submit the same responses to questions

As food production became more industrialized during the 20th century, several trends emerged. One trend was a loss in the number of varieties of crops grown. A second trend was the increasing amount of energy expended to store food and ship it to market. In some countries food may travel long distances to reach the market. In the U.S. today, food travels an average of 1,400 miles from the field to the table. The price American pay for the food covers the cost of this long-distance transportation, which in 2004 was approximately only one dollar per mile (1.6 km).

Assuming that you are an American (not all of us are in this class), you live in New York City (2009 population estimate 8,363,710), and that the average American eats 1 kg (2 pounds) of food per day, calculate the food transportation costs for each category in the table below (U.S. 2009 population estimates 307,006,550).

Consumer Daily Cost Annual cost
You $1.40 $511
Your class 28 $ 10220 $
Your town (New York) 11709194 $ 4273855810 $
United States 429809170 $ 112057390750 $

Questions

  1. What specific challenges to environmental sustainability are imposed by a food production and distribution system that relies on long-range transportation to bring food to market?

The costs for all the transportation and the consumption are really high which means New York, and the United States as a whole need to spend a lot of money so that they have the ability to feed because long distance transportation is needed.

  1. A study by Pirog and Benjamin (2003) noted that locally produced food in the U.S. traveled only 80 kilometers (appx 50miles) or so to the market, thus saving 96% of the transportation costs. Locally grown foods may be fresher and cause less environmental impact as they are brought to market, but what are the disadvantages to you as a consumer in relying on local food production? Do you think the advantages outweigh those disadvantages?

A disadvantage on relying on local food production is that you will not have variation in your diet; you will be eating almost the same types of food almost all the time. I believe yes the advantages outweighs the dis-advantages because we same on harming the planet and the environment if we use short trips to transfer the foods and the foods will be more fresh rather than taking long trips to deliver the food.

  1. What happened to the gasoline prices recently? How would future increases in the price of gas affect your answers to the preceding questions?

Now that the gasoline prices rise everything else will rise because we need gasoline to make the different deliveries, but with high gasoline prices its better to take smaller trips so we don’t have to pay as much money and by taking smaller trips we help with the pollution of the atmosphere issue that we are faced with

  1. If you are an American, how do you think these figures apply to other countries or your country? Where do you base your assumptions?

I believe that the figurers in Greece are substantially lower because we are a small country and the transportation that the food will undergo in Greece are a lot smaller compared to the USA trips.

Pirog, R., and Benjamin, A. (2003). Checking the food odometer. Comparing food miles for local versus conventional produce sales to Iowa institutions. Ames, IA: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Iowa State University.

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Forming Quizzes

Chapter 1

1.) What is an ecological footprint?

A. Our impact on the earth’s natural resources.

B. Measure of human demand on the Earth’s Ecosystems.

C. Area that we occupy on the earth.

D. Evidence that we leave behind.

2.) Solutions in the problems with the environment should be…

A. Short term

B. Long term

C. Sustainable

D. Must be worldwide scale

3.) What is a hypothesis?

A. A prediction

B. An idea that can be tested about a phenomenon

C. Used to examine environmental solutions

D. A theory made about nature

4.) Why so we use the scientific method?

A. So we learn how the earth works

B. So we have a procedure on forming experiments

C. So we base experiments on observations

D. For the use of science in a in a smaller scale

5.) What are Cassandras?

A. People who believe in advances of technology

B. People who can see disasters

C. A tribe in South America

D. An extinct animal

6.) Natural sciences deal with the natural world. True/False

7.) Social sciences deal with Technology and its impact on the earth. True/False

8.) Match the following….

___A. Scientific Method

___B. Agricultural and Industrial revolution

___C. Ecosystem

___D. Scientific inquiry

___E. Environmental Science

1. Observe, Question, Hypothesis, Predict. Test, Results

2. A biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving

3. Interdisiplinary

4. An incremental approach to truth

5. Lead to increase in population

9. Identify and explain the steps in the Scientific Method.

10.) Prepare a theory on why worms come out of the earth when it rains

Chapter 2.

1.) What is the most abundant chemical in the air that we breathe?

A. Oxygen

B. Nitrogen

C. Argon

D. Other

2.) What determines acidity?

A. The chemicals used

B. The chemical mass of the item

C. Hydrogen Ions

D. Oxygen Ions

3.) Nucleic acids direct the production of

A. Fat

B. Nutrients

C. Proteins

D. Carbohydrates

4.) Photosynthesis produces

A. Oxygen

B. Sugar

C. Oxygen and sugar

D. Carbon dioxide

5.) Cellular respiration produces _______ energy

A. Potential

B. Kinetic

C. Chemical

D. All of the above

6.) Macromolecules are the building blocks of life. True/False

7.) Atoms are the largest units that maintain the chemical properties of an element. True/False

8.) Match the following….

___A. Element

___B. Proteins

___C. Autotrophs

___D. Compound

___E. Matter

1. A molecule made up of amino acids

2. Has mass and occupies space

3. A substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical elements

4. A substance consisting of atoms which all have the same number of protons

5. An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances

9.) Describe the process in how earthquakes occur.

10.) Set up an experiment that shown the first law of thermodynamics.

Chapter 3.

1.) What are adaptive traits?

A.) Traits humans formed over time

B.) Traits that we inherit form our parents

C.) A genetic trait that helps an organism to maximize its reproductive success

D.) All of the above

2.) Non-Lethal mutation is

A.) An abnormality

B) Leads to Variation

C.) A change in a specific organism DNA

D.) All of the above

3.) Natural selection was formed by

A.) Charles Darwin

B.) Alfred Russel Wallace

C.) Darwin and Wallace

D.) Someone else

4.) Sexual Reproduction leads to

A.) Variation

B.) Higher population

C.) Recombination

D.) All of the above

5.) Each organism can_____

A.) Adapt and live anywhere

B.) Needs a specific habitat

C.) Diereses to the area he lives in

D.) None of the above

6.) Extinction is a natural action. True/False

7.) Evolution leads to biodiversity. True/False

8.) Match the following….

___A. Evolution

___B. Carbon Dating

___C. Generation of new species

___D. Natural selection

___E. Habitat

1. Speciation

2. Process in which we date how old fossils are

3. The process in nature by which only the organisms best adapted to their environment survive

4. Place where an organism population normally lives

5. Change over time

9.) Describe how biodiversity influences biodiversity.

10.) Interpret the factors for extinction and mass extinction occurs.

 

Chapter 4

1) Herbivores eat

A.) Plants

B.) Animals

C.) Plants and animals

D.) Anything they can acquire

2.) Competitive exclusion is

A.) When two species can live in a given area side by side

B.) A subtle form of competition

C.) two or more species cannot coexist on the same area of limited  resources because one will compete more successfully than the other

D.) None of the above

3.) Parasitism is

A.) When parasites attack animals

B.) When animals feed on parasites

C.) A relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host

D.) None of the above

4.) Symbiosis is

A.) A relationship of mutual benefit or dependence between animals

B.) A harmful to both relationship between animals

C.) One animal benefits from the other

D.) No one animal benefits from this

5.) Amensalism is

A.) A relation between animals that benefit each other

B.) A relation between animals that harms both

C.) A relationship between animals that benefits one and harms the other

D.) A relationship between animals that doesn’t affect each other

6.) Different altitudes create patterns analogous to latitude. True/False

7.) We divide the earth into 7 terrestrial biomes. True/False

8.) Match the following….

___A. Resource partitioning can lead to

___B. Species that has a disproportionate effect on its environment relative to its biomass

___C. Competitive interaction between two species is

___D. An area having relatively little precipitation due to the effect of a natural barrier

___E. Competitive interaction between two different species is

1. Interspecific competition

2. Rainshadow effect

3. Character displacement

4. Keystone species

5. Intraspecific competition

#9.) Explain the goals and methods of restoration ecology

10.) Illustrate characteristics of keystone species.

Chapter 6

1.) The triple bottom line is used to obtain

A.) Viable

B.) Bearable

C.) Equitable

D.) Sustainable

2.) Our decisions and actions are taken by

A.) Culture and Values

B.) World View

C.) Personal Experience

D.) All of the above

3.) Aldo Leopold land ethics arose from

A.) Preservation Ethics

B.) Conservation Ethics

C.) A and B

D.) None of the above

4.) The oldest economy is the

A.) Capitalistic

B.) Centrally planned

C.) Subsistence

D.) Mixed

5.) What has been taken into consideration of Neoclassical Economy that wasn’t incorporated before?

A.) Thinking about the Nature

B.) People’s behaviour

C.) Psychology

D.) None of the above

6.) We live in a contraction oriented economy. True/False

7.) GPI is another way to measure progress. True/False

8.) Match the following….

___A. Gifford Pinchot

___B. Centrally planned economics

___C. Capitalist market economy

___D. Environmental ethics

___E. John Muir

1. Was motivated by the rapid deforestation and environmental degradation

2. An economic system based on private ownership

3. Founded the U.S. forest service

4.An economic system in which economic decisions are made by the state

5. Considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world

9.) Explain how our economies exist within the environment and rely on ecosystem services

10.) Interpret and explain the concepts of economic growth, well-being, and sustainability



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Forming a Hypothesis

Based on what we know from the information we can say that the hypotheses stated: Periodic fires may prevent tree seedlings from becoming established in grassland, can be a valid hypothesis but in order to be sure we must use the scientific method. So now we have a hypothesis we need to make a prediction and test it, but we cant do a test because we cant set that area on fore, so we can go back through the cities records and have a look on how often fires occur on that area, and we need to take into consideration that it takes many years for the seeds of trees to grow to become a full size tree. The prediction is this case is that the seeds are planted and growing but the fires destroy the tree and there’s no possibility for the tree to grow. Since we cant test it we need to gather information on the fires on that location and generate an idea in which the fire affects the growth of the trees or not. If not then you need to generate another hypothesis make predictions and test your hypothesis. Then compare the results to your hypothesis and either accept the results or reject it and form another hypothesis.

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What is environmental science?

 

Environmental science is the study of how the natural world as we know it works, how we use the environment, how the environment affects us and how we on the other hand affect the environment we live in.

Environmental science is called an interdisciplinary pursuit because it has to deal with many aspects on the matter in order for the environmental scientists to do their work. A few of these aspects are biology, chemistry, geology, ethics, engineering, economics and many more. Environmental science is an interdisciplinary field because they borrow techniques from multiple disciplines as stated before and bring their results together into a board synthesis. Environmental science consists of many branches of science.

My field of study is economics. It is expressed in a few elements that environmental scientists take into consideration. These are Economics, Ethics and engineering. My field of study which is economics is considered a Social science. Economics is the study of man and his activities in relation to his environment. The study of ends and scarce means which studies alternative uses. Economics is a social science because it studies human environment, there is no specific physical laboratory. If we want to test anything concerning with economics, then we survey and taking primary and secondary data and analyze the things and it is carried out on the society. Thus, society is the laboratory for any test of the subjects concerning with economics.

 

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About me

Hi,

My name is Serge and I am a student at the American college of Thessaloniki for the year 2011.

My major is business management.

I made my blog so I can interact mostly with my ecology class, but who know maybe to meet new people.

I am interested on the global warming issue because previous semester I had English 203 and we watched Vaclav Havel’s meeting to face the issue so I got interested in it.

I was born at Wilson, North Carolina but I left at my very early years so I don’t remember much from that place.

North Carolina has 45% of its land Coastal plains, 39% is piedmont which is a plateau between the Coastal plains and the Appalachian Mountains, and the rest 16% are mountains.

A problem that North Carolina faces is to save their Outer Banks. The Outer Banks are some of the most treasured and visited beaches in the country. Drawing more than 7 million visitors every year, North Carolina’s beaches is central to the state’s tourism industry. Now the Obama administration is trying to drill the coast so they will loose their money from tourism and possibly polluting the oceans.

 

I live now in an area called Pournari. It is near Thermi and Panorama. Our house is located near a small forest which now people use as their own area for garbage disposal. Our house is located on a hill so it is very beautiful and the view is amazing.

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